Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
site header image

Dispute Resolution Research Guide: Online Dispute Resolution

This guide provides information about and links to the Library's most popular and most-cited dispute resolution resources. Topics include alternative dispute resolution, arbitration, client counseling, collaborative law, mediation, and negotiation.

What is Online Dispute Resolution (ODR)?

Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) refers to a broad and flexible set of systems that are meant to integrate technology into various approaches towards and steps of the dispute resolution process. These processes and programs are proliferating, including in court systems, with an established precedent internationally in countries such as the UK, the Netherlands and Canada, and increasing adoption  stateside. Software companies and courts are developing online platforms in 25 countries and ODR is currently resolving millions of e-commerce, insurance, auto accident, domain name, online gaming, property tax, and “sharing economy” customer disputes each year.

From: ADR-ODR and Conflict Resolution Skills Committee, Subcommittee on  Online Dispute Resolution
Re: Recommendations for Chicago Bar Association Summit
Date: October 5, 2017

Selected Books on ODR

Martin Gramatikov, Costs and Quality of Online Dispute Resolution: A Handbook for Measuring the Costs and Quality of ODR (Antwerp; Portland, Or.; Maklu 2012).

Ethan Katsh & Orna Rabinovich-Einy, Digital Justice: Technology and the Internet of Disputes (Oxford University Press 2017).

Gabrielle Kaufmann-Kohler & Thomas Schultz, Online Dispute Resolution: Challenges for Contemporary Justice (The Hague : ZüRich, Kluwer Law International ; Schulthess, 2004).

Lucille M. Ponte & Thomas D. Cavenagh, CyberJustice: Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) for E-commerce (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall 2005).

Colin Rule, Online Dispute Resolution for Business: B2B, E-commerce, Consumer, Employment, Insurance, and Other Commercial Conflicts (1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 2002).

Amy Schmitz & Colin Rule, The New Handshake: Online Dispute Resolution and the Future of Consumer Protection (American Bar Association 2017).

Richard Susskind, Online Courts and the Future of Justice (Oxford University Press 2019)

Mohamed S. Abdel Wahab, Ethan M. Katsh, & Daniel Rainey, Online Dispute Resolution: Theory and Practice: A Treatise on Technology and Dispute Resolution (The Hague : Portland, OR: Eleven International Pub. ; Sold and Distributed in USA and Canada by International Specialized Book Services, 2012).

Faye Fangfei Wang, Online Dispute Resolution: Technology, Management and Legal Practice from an International Perspective (Oxford: Chandos 2009).

Selected Articles & Documents on ODR

Avdyev Marat Aleksandrovich. Dispute Resolution Services Online: Selected Cases, Modern Management Technology (2015).  

Paul Breaux, Online Dispute Resolution: A Modern Alternative Dispute Resolution Approach, Computer and Internet Lawyer 32(5), 1-4 (2015).

Noam Ebner, & John Zeleznikow, Fairness, Trust and Security in Online Dispute Resolution, Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy 36(2) 143-160 (2015).

Noam Ebner,  & John Zeleznikow, No Sheriff in Town: Governance for Online Dispute Resolution, Negotiation Journal 32(4), 297-323 (2016).

Damian Clifford, & Young Shin Van Der Sype, Online Dispute Resolution: Settling Data Protection Disputes in a Digital World of Customers, Computer Law & Security Review: The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice, 32(2), 272-285 (2016).

Institute for the Advancement of the American Legal System (IAALS), A Court Compass for Litigants (2016),

Dory Reiling, Beyond Court Digitalization with ODR. International Journal for Court Administration, 8(2), 1-6 (2017).

Lauraann Wood, The Digital Mediator, When Neutrals Go Digital. Chicago Lawyer, 40(9) 16-23 (2017).

Websites and Electronic Resources

Civil Resolution Tribunal
Canada’s first online tribunal (

Legal Services Society
online legal aid in British Columbia (